Archive for : January, 2013
Within the family environment, children’s participation in decisions has been seen to stimulate a child to be more active, socially outgoing, intelligent, curious, original and constructive; in larger families social cooperativeness is developed along with an ability to work towards a group goal (Bass, 1990).
Informal leadership learning can be described as development through experiences where managers learn, grow and undergo personal change as a result of the roles, responsibilities and tasks encountered in their jobs (McCauley & Brutus, 1998), and so reflect emergent and accidental events rather than a deliberate and consciously planned approach to development.
Development occurs through specifically designed programs. … Instead it is a continuous process that can take place anywhere. … It means helping people to learn from their work rather than taking them away from their work to learn.
Establishing formal programs to develop leadership at all levels is a priority … the more companies do to develop leaders, the greater their financial success on shareholder return, growth in net income, growth in market sales and return on sales.
In a review of corporate ‘best practice’ within management development programs, James and Burgoyne (2001) identified a range of published case examples of organizations that concentrated less on formal training and significantly more towards the development of the next generation of leaders through action learning projects and senior leaders teaching and mentoring (similarly echoed by Fulmer & Wagner, 1999; Burgoyne et al., 2004).
Criticism of broad education has centered on teaching individual managers about management, rather than how to manage and that there is too little opportunity to learn about practice and become competent in behavioral skills (Pfeffer, 1977; Waters, 1980).
It was argued by Schriesheim and Neider (1989) that leadership development activity has become overly focused on two areas, and this remains similar today, namely: behavioral skills and awareness training that often incorporates behavioral psychology; and broad education on management development that seeks development implicitly and in rather an emergent and anticipatory fashion, often incorporating functional skills.