Criticism of broad education has centered on teaching individual managers about management, rather than how to manage and that there is too little opportunity to learn about practice and become competent in behavioral skills (Pfeffer, 1977; Waters, 1980).
Further, there are concerns about educational competency programs being able to replicate the competence of effective managers (Vaill, 1983); in particular whether trainers and educationalists can design and deliver competence training that replicates, and can be migrated into, the idiosyncratic context of organizations (Bradford, 1983).
A shift of foci has occurred that has seen a movement towards interpersonal behavior within organizational contexts and particularly within the context of daily activity and interaction (Day, 2000; Burgoyne et al., 2004).
Such a movement has given greater emphasis to coaching, mentoring and role modeling behavior. The current pattern of best practice development has extenuated this shift from taught classroom-based activities to action learning, coaching and mentoring with an ever-increasing focus on competencies and â€˜anywhere any timeâ€™ (James & Burgoyne, 2001: 9) organizationally focused learning, oriented towards and aligned with corporate strategy (Fulmer & Wagner, 1999; Burgoyne et al., 2004).