Such realization often occurs inaction (Schon, 1983; Ferry & Ross-Gordon, 1998) or reflection-on-action (Schon, 1983), but can be seen to be catalyzed through key events that disrupt routines and allow new behaviors to be learnt for new situations (Brett, 1983; a similar argument was suggested by the formative work of Whitehead, 1933).
Linked to Davies and Easter by-Smith (1984), Brett (1983) suggests that such routines are broken and development results as a consequence of an individual’s perception of uncertainty and expectation; in a sense, an emotional and anxious episode.
Associated with routine breaking and subsequent development, is the notion of mid-career change causing individuals to trial activity in new areas leading to greater adaptation that is often associated with changes in personal and social identity (Gergen, 1971; similar arguments in Ezzy, 1998; Ibarra, 1999).
Such explicit triggers for reappraisal of values, identity, self-efficacy and behavior have been associated with hardships (McCall et al., 1988) and, in particular, executive derailment (McCall, 1998). Developmental relationships, through observational learning, appear to be much more emergent and subliminal (Bandura, 1986) and may only be recognized through the identification of particular formative incidents recalled through episodic memory (Srull & Wyer, 1989; Walsh, 1995).